What are Pronouns?
Pronouns are words that take the place of a noun (in English, words like "he," "they," "each other," "yours," etc.). There are a few different types of pronouns used in German:
More lessons about Pronouns
Most pronouns have to be declined (their form is changed based on how they are used in the sentence). The following lessons contain simple explanations about the different types of pronouns, as well tips about declension, word order, and when / how to use them. And of course, lots of examples to help you feel ready to apply your new knowledge.
Personal Pronouns are the pronouns: ich, du, er, sie, es, wir, ihr, sie, Sie and their respective declined versions. They replace a noun that has already been mentioned. However, you can also use them to talk about yourself or other people.
Example: „Das ist Max. Er spielt gerne Fußball.“
To the Lesson: Personal Pronoun
Possessive Pronouns are: mein, dein, sein, ihr, unser, euer, ihr and the conjugated forms of each. They replace a noun (noun) already mentioned and indicate possession or affiliation with that noun.
Example: „Ist das dein Koffer?“ – „Ja, das ist meiner!“
To the Lesson: Possessive Pronoun
Reflexive Pronouns are the pronouns: mich, mir, dich, dir, sich, uns, euch and sich. They are used with reflexive and reciprocal verbs. They always refer to the subject.
Example: „Ich wasche mir die Hände.“
To the Lesson: Reflexive Pronoun
Demonstrative Pronouns are: der, die, das, dieser, diese, dieses, jener, jene, jenes and their respective declined versions. They are used to emphasize something and can stand for a noun that has already been mentioned.
Example: „Wer ist der Mann dort?“ – „Den kenne ich nicht.“
To the Lesson: Demonstrative Pronoun
Indefinite Pronouns are, for example, the pronouns: etwas, nichts, jeder, man, jemand, niemand and the respective declined versions. They stand in place of persons or things that cannot be exactly defined. Not all of them have to be declined.
Example: „Bringst du mir etwas zu essen mit?“
To the Lesson: Indefinite Pronoun
Relative Pronouns are: der, die, das, wo, welcher, welches, welche and the respective declined versions. They stand for a noun already mentioned and the following subordinate clause (=Relative Clause) gives additional information about the noun.
Example: „Das ist der Mann, der einen Ferrari hat.“
To the Lesson: Relative Pronoun
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