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What is the Dative Case?
- The Dative Case is one of four German cases also called Kasus.
- It is also known as the „Indirect Object“.
- The Indirect Object is the noun that receive something (which usually is in the Accusative case).
- We also use the Dative case after certain Verbs and Prepositions. (See: Verbs with Dative & Prepositions with Dative)
- The question for Dative case is: „Wem?“ or „Was“?
- „Das Auto gehört dem Mann.“
Who does the car belong to? – Dem Mann!
The Verb „gehören“ always requires the Dative case.
- „Der Junge schenkt einer Freundin die Blumen.“
To whom does the boy give the flowers? – Einer Freundin!
„Freundin“ is the Indirect Object. She receives the flower!
What does the boy give to a friend? – Die Blumen!
„Die Blumen“ is the direct Object, which is acted upon!
Dative - Declension
In the Dative case, we need to change all the Articles.
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When the Plural form doesn't end in "s" or "n", the Plural form in Dative requires an extra "-n" that needs to be added on to the end.
- die Fahrräder – den Fahrrädern
- die Bilder – den Bildern
- die Tische – den Tischen
- die Autos – den Autos ⇒ kein „n“
- die Frauen – den Frauen ⇒ kein „n“
Use of the Dative case
Use: Indirect Object
- „Er gibt dem Mann die Schlüssel.“
The person performing the action („er“ ⇒ he ⇒ Subject ⇒ Nominative) gives something („die Schlüssel“ ⇒ the keys are acted upon ⇒ Direct Object ⇒ Accusative) to a receiver. („Der Mann“ ⇒ the man gets something ⇒ Indirect Object ⇒ Dative)
The noun in the Dative case usually receives something (The noun in the Accusative case.)
Use: Dative Object
After certain Verbs (= Verbs with Dative Complements) the Dative always needs to be used. For example,„helfen“, „gehören“, „zuhören“.
- „Ich helfe dem Mann“
- „Das Auto gehört einem Kollegen.“
- „Ich höre meiner Freundin zu.“
Those Verbs requires the Dative case. The object is still the "Direct Object". But since the verb can only be used with the Dative case.
⇒ It's the Dative case because the verbs says so!
Use: After Prepositions
- „Er kommt aus dem Haus.“
- „Du bist bei einer Freundin.“
- „Der Mann geht zu dem Bahnhof.“
As with the Accusative, Prepositions don't care whether the object is direct or indirect. They also don't care which case (Kasus) the verb likes to use. (More on this in the lesson: Verbs with Complements). They ALWAYS use their own case (Kasus). (More about this in the lesson: Prepositions)
If there is a Preposition before the Noun, all other rules do not matter.
The rule of the respective Preposition ALWAYS applies.
It doesn't matter if it's a Direct or Indirect Object or which case the Verb wants to use.
The Preposition tells you which case to use! ALWAYS!
Exercises for the Dative case:
Detailed explanations of the other German Cases:
The following things need to be adjusted (declined) based on the case:
The following things affect the case:
- Verbs with Complements (Verbs with Accusative, Verbs with Dative, Verbs with Dative and Accusative, Verbs with Genitive)
- Prepositions with Accusative
- Prepositions with Dative
- Prepositions with Genitive
You can find an overview of all topics under German Grammar.